What is the Beam Profiler with M2 platform software LaseView ?

Overview

LaseView is a laser beam profiler software which can be used with commercially available CCD cameras, offering high performances and multi-purpose possibilities. As it can be used with commercial CCD or CMOS cameras, it allows the customer to easily build a low-cost and practical beam measurement system.

Features

LaseView6

Fig: LaseView6 screen

For more details, click LaseView specification or Analysis Function details.
M2

Fig: M2 measurement screen

M2 (Msquare) beam quality, an important parameter related to light collection characteristics, can be easily measured with standard functions.
M2 beam quality is a very important parameter for laser processing. Click here for optical system setting and analysis procedures related to M2 beam quality measurement
Analysis result diagram

Fig: Result of beam divergence angle analysis

The beam divergence (divergence), an important parameter related to light propagation characteristics, can be easily measured with standard functions.
Beam divergence is a very important parameter for laser propagation.
Click here for procedures of beam divergence angle analysis
Beam pointing

Fig. Beam pointing

It is possible to easily measure the beam pointing aging, which is an important parameter related to beam stability, with the standard function.
Beam pointing aging is a very important parameter for laser stability.
Click here for the beam pointing analysis procedure

Comparison between usual products and LaseView

By using commercially available CCD or CMOS cameras, it is possible to easily realize a low-cost and practical beam measurement system. Moreover LaseView is compliant with a lot of low-cost cameras, allowing to adapt the beam measurement system to your needs.

Conventional profiler LaseView6
Main sale method Camera + Software Software only
(Camera as Option A
Selectable 3rd-party camera
(starting from US$500〜)
M2 beam quality measurement function ×
(supplement US$ 5,000〜)
◎*
(included)
Software price × US$3000〜
Price for one US$5000〜 US$3500〜
(Software US$3000 + CCD camera price)
Price for 4 US$20000 〜 US$5000 〜
(1 software + 4 cameras)
Beam profiler
+ M2 beam quality measurement function
US$10000 〜
(US$5000 〜 + US$5000〜)
US$3500 〜
(Software US$3000 + CCD camera price)
Smallest Measurable beam diameter 30 μm 〜 2 μm 〜
(with Option B
Biggest Measurable beam diameter 〜 24 mm 〜 100 mm
(with LaseView-LHB)
Language English English and Japanese
*Converging lenses with focal distances of 50mm-100mm (for instance with 1mm diameter beam) are recommended.
*As LaseView can be used with low-cost, easily replaceable cameras, user doesn’t have to be too much worried about breaking the camera for instance in harsh environment or training, and can even consider cameras as expandable materials. Our customers have reported a real easy-to-set up, easy-to-use feeling.

Examples of use of LaseView

Sample images

image_example


Fig: Near-field pattern of He-Ne laser, Far-field pattern of Ti:Sapphire laser (focalized by a F=3.3 parabolic mirror), Focused beam pattern from multi-mode fiber of laser diode

Beam monitoring in laser processing (1 software + 2 cameras)

Beam


Fig: Beam position monitoring in laser processing setup

Laser processing consists, after transferring the state of a parallel laser beam, in focusing it on a target object to irradiate it.
If the beam direction or position in front of the lens changes, the focus point changes too and the beam profile as well, so that the object cannot be precisely processed.
In order to maintain precisely the direction (Poynting vector) and the position of the beam in the center of the lens, an optical setup with 2 beam profilers is used.
The parallel beam position (for example the beam barycenter) is measured at 2 places, and the beam is made to go through the expected position thanks to 2 active mirrors so that it can deliver a precise optical axis.

Beam monitoring system in laser damage test (1 software + 4 cameras)

Beam


Fig: Beam monitoring using several CCD in a laser damage test setup

Laser processing tests (damage tests) address, when the sample position and the laser profile have been correctly measured, the need to check after irradiation the presence or absence of damage.
Moreover, the reproducibility of the sample position after replacement, and for a large number of samples, is very important. For that purpose, an optical setup using several CCD is used.(Note that as LaseView displays color images, color cameras can also be used for these observations).

Microscope optical system

The beam profiler can be used as a microscope simply by attaching a lens barrel to the CCD camera. Visible range (400-700
nm) is corrected for chromatic aberration.
If a color camera is used, full color display is also possible.
By illuminating with LED light, various objects such as fiber end faces can be observed.
  • Magnification: 10x, 20x, 40x (Specify the magnification when ordering)
  • NA: 0.25 (10 times), 0.40 (20 times), 0.65 (40 times)
  • Operating wavelength range: 400 to 700 nm
  • Working distance: 5.5 mm (10 times), 1.7 mm (20 times), 0.6 mm (40 times)
  • Length: about 180 mm
Microscope optical systemMicroscope optical systemFiber end x20

Fiber optics measurement system

This is an example where a laser beam @975nm emitted from an FC/APC connector is measured using the micro-beam optical system.
We see that the mode field diameter is about 6.4μm, which is consistent with the fiber specs (6.6 +/- 0.7μm @980nm).
The measured intensity distribution (white) and its fitted Gaussian profile (red) are nearly identical, as the near-field pattern of the HE11 mode is described by a Bessel function, of which a Gaussian is a known good approximation.Moreover, the aspect ratio of the beam slightly differs due to the polished angled surface of the connector. It can be seen that its horizontal direction became smaller by refraction at the fiber’s end.
  • Using LaseView with such a setup can show that the fiber output surface is not damaged.
  • It gives the fiber optics mode field diameter.
  • It shows that the Intensity distribution is Gaussian.
  • It indicates that the connector is an APC.
Fiber measurement opticsMeasurement example

Control evaluation system for spatial light modulator (LCOS-SLM)

The beam profiler software for evaluation has been incorporated into the CGH program software for LCOS-SLM control developed by Kokyo.

Multi-point analysis function in LaseView

Fig: Analysis of multiple beam spots by one camera

1. Simultaneously analyze multiple beam spots with one camera. (See video)

Case 1: Analysis usage example with multiple “LHB”

複数LHBでの解析

Fig: 90 degrees in the circumferential direction

 

laseview_buttonpaypal accepted here

LaseView lineup (detailed specifications, Details of analysis function, camera options, other options, explanation of terms, FAQ)

* Camera will be needed in measuring beam profile and recommended ones are in the Cameras tab below.
* Camera set that the camera is set from the beginning See “LaseView Camera Set Series” on another page.
* If the beam intensity is high or the beam diameter is small, please see the “Other Options” tab below.
* For large beam diameters, please check the page of LHB.
* If you don’t get any image when pushing the start button, please begin after defining “Pixel format” of the “Camera Setup” in the “Camera” tab.
detailed specifications

Features

  • Ribbon UI user interface
  • Image logging function
  • Analysis of beam pointing over time
  • Analysis of beam divergence angle
  • Histogram display
  • Measuring the spatial intensity distribution of the beam
  • Beam diameter measurement
  • M2 measurement
  • Measurement of micro beams of 30 μm or less
  • Real-time image averaging function
  • Real-time contrast adjustment function (16-bit, 65536 wide dynamic range)
  • Image buffer function (multiple images can be stored in memory and displayed sequentially)
  • Image save function in TIFF format
  • Smooth display function by hardware acceleration
  • Compatible with 32 bit and 64 bit Windows

Operating environment

Windows 7
Windows 8、Windows 8.1
Windows 10
CPU speed: Intel Core i3 2GHz or equivalent or higher Free memory: 512MB or more

* However, operation is not guaranteed for all computers that meet this environment.
* This software requires .NET Framework 4.5 or later.
You can check the version of .NET Framework from the following.
.NET Framework version check
* The screen of this manual may differ from the actual screen depending on the version, but it can be used without problems.

Analysis functions

  • Line profile
    Line profile display on crosshair (with Gauss, Lorentz, Sech function fitting and FWHM analysis function)
  • Integration profile
    Horizontal / vertical averaged profile display (with analysis function similar to line profile)
  • Max. Intensity Projection
    Horizontal / vertical orthogonal projection (maximum value) profile display (with analysis function similar to line profile)
  • Point-Point Distance
    Measure the distance between any two points on the screen
  • Peak integration
    Analysis of the integral value inside the circle and the light intensity on the cursor with the background outside the circle

Analysis example

Line profile
Line profile
Displays line profile on the white-cross line (in white). You can calculate FWHM of the beam profile, and also fit the profile with Gauss, Lorentz, and Sech functions.(The red line is the fitting result by Sech2 function). The white-cross line can be rotated.
This video shows the tracking function in real time when peak detection is turned on.
Integration profile
Integration profile
Displays averaged profile in the horizontal and vertical direction (with analysis functions similar to the Line profile).
Max. Intensity Projection
Max. Intensity Projection
Displays in horizontal and vertical directions of the orthogonal projection (maximum value) of the profile (with analysis functions similar to the Line profile). In this example, we measure the FWHM.
Point-to-Point Distance function
Point-to-Point Distance function
Measurement of the distance between any two points on the screen.
In the following example, we can see that the diameter at the green level is 826.8μm.
Peak Integration function
Peak Integration function
Analysis of the integrated value in a circle and analysis of the light intensity on the cursor by setting the outside of the circle as a background.
Allows you to adjust the size of the circle which appears on the screen to fit yourself the laser beam. Then click on “Peak detection” to get the position indicated by a cross-line as below.

Explanation of notation used in each function

The following table explains the notation used in each function.

Details of analysis function

M2 beam quality analysis function

The procedure for setting the optical system is shown below.

  1. Focus the laser beam with a lens with an F value (focal length / beam diameter) of about 50-100.
  2. Install a ruler or optical rail so that the CCD camera can slide along the beam within the range of ± 50mm to ± 150mm from the center of the beam waist.
  3. Adjust the amount of incident light, gain / exposure time, etc. so that the laser beam is not too strong.

The procedure for M2 beam quality analysis is shown below.

  1. Click “Open Folder” on the “File” tab, and create (or specify) an empty folder for saving images.
  2. Save about 10 to 30 beam profiles in the range of ± 50mm to ± 150mm around the beam waist on the axis of the laser beam. The procedure is as follows.
  3. (A) Check the beam diameter of the beam waist.
  4. (B) Move the CCD camera to a position where the beam diameter is about five times the beam diameter of the beam waist.
  5. (C) Fix the CCD camera and adjust the amount of light and the exposure time of the CCD to obtain a good image with little noise.
  6. (D) Click “Save Image” on the “File” tab, enter the current CCD position in the file name text box using mathematical numbers (single byte), and save the image. At this time, a unit can be added after the number, and nm, μm (um), mm, cm, and m (all single-byte characters) can be used, but if the unit is omitted, it is processed as mm.
    Example: 30mm.tif, 100mm.tif, 150mm.tif etc.
  7. (E) Move the CCD camera at intervals of 2 to 10 mm, and repeat (c) to (d). At this time, the movement interval does not need to be equal, and if the vicinity of the beam waist is measured at a narrower interval, the accuracy may be improved.
  8. Click the “M2 Beam Quality” button on the “Batch Analysis” tab. The M2 beam quality analysis window will be displayed. Enter the laser wavelength in nm in the upper right text box.
  9. Click the “Run Analysis” button to run the analysis, and if successful, the results will be displayed in a graph.

* Analysis results are displayed as beam radius.

Beam divergence angle analysis function

The procedure for beam divergence angle analysis is shown below.

  1. Click “Open Folder” on the “File” tab, and create (or specify) an empty folder for saving images.
  2. Measure at two or more locations and save the images in the same folder. In that case, please include the measurement position in the file name.
    Example: 1.5m, 25cm, etc.
  3. Click the [Spread Angle] button on the [Batch Analysis] tab. The divergence angle batch analysis window is displayed.
  4. Click the Run Analysis button to run the analysis and display the results on a graph if successful.

Beam pointing change analysis function

The procedure for analyzing beam pointing changes over time is shown below.

  1. Click “Open Folder” on the “File” tab, and create (or specify) an empty folder for saving images.
  2. Use the image logging function to save images at appropriate time intervals.
  3. Click the [Pointing] button.
  4. Clicking [Execute Analysis] displays a graph of the changes in the X and Y coordinates of the center of gravity of the beam. The elapsed time is calculated based on the shooting date and time embedded in the file.
About beam profiler

1.1. Camera

1.2. Beam Profiler

1.2.1. What is Beam Profiler

A Beam profiler is a device to measure the beam diameter and the spatial intensity distribution of a laser. Beam diameter and the spatial intensity distribution are the laser characteristics that represent how the laser behaves. For example, even if the two lasers have the same intensity and beam diameter, if the spatial intensity distribution is deferent, the two lasers do not behave the same. Also even with a strictly designed laser resonator, difficult to accurately predict the beam characteristics that can actually be obtained is difficult, dew to manufacturing errors of the optical element and surrounding environment such as temperature. So it is important to actually measure, the properties of the beam.

A beam profiler is used for measuring beam characteristics. There are two main measuring types, fixed type beam profiler and scanning type beam profiler (table 1). Using fixed type beam profiler, it is possible to efficiently measure the beam pattern, because it measures the entire beam at once using a two-dimensional optical sensor. Also it is possible to measure pulse wave and continuous wave. Scanning type beam profiler, uses a single optical detector to measure the light intensity of that moment. Scanning type is a more low cost system than the fixed type. Both methods can measure N.F.P. (near field patter) and F.F.P. (far field pattern) of the beam.

Here we will explain the definition of the beam diameter, then each of the methods of measuring beam profile.

Table Beam characteristic measurement methods
(Advantages and disadvantages of fixed type beam profiler and scanning type beam profiler)

Merit Demerit
Fixed type beam profiler
・CCD camera type beam profiler
・Short measuring time
・Can measure pulse light
・Possible to identify complex beam patterns
(such as donut-shaped pr flat-top)
・For small beam diameters need extra optical device
Scanning types beam profiler
・Slit type
・Knife edge type
・Measurement of small beam diameter is easy ・Long measuring time
・Difficult to measure pulse wave
・Identifying complex beam pattern is difficult

1.2.2. Definition of Beam Diameter

Laser beam has a distribution of light intensity in the plane that is perpendicular to the direction of propagation. Light does not have a clear border, so we need to define beam diameter. They are several defining methods, however the most commonly used is the following. In a Gaussian beam, which the intensity distribution is circular symmetry, position of the beam diameter is where the light intensity becomes 1/e2 of the maximum intensity.
The intensity of a Gaussian beam with a light intensity of P, is represented in the following equation.
1

Figure 1(a) shows the cross section and the intensity profile of the Gaussian beam mentioned in Eq. (1).
The beam diameter is w0. There are also other methods. Such as the method that defines the beam diameter as, where the intensity becomes half of the maximum intensity. This is called full-width half-maximum, FWHM.

The definitions above cannot be easily applied to a laser that has an asymmetric beam shape. With asymmetric beams, the range which has 86.5% of the light intensity is defined as the beam diameter (Fig. 1(b)). With a beam with highly complex form, and is difficult to define the beam diameter, ISO Standard is used. In ISO Standard the beam diameter is defined as, the level where the value of the second moment of the intensity distribution becomes 1/e2.

Fig.1Definition of beam diameter. (a) Gaussian beam (b) beam with a complex form


Fig.1Definition of beam diameter. (a) Gaussian beam (b) beam with a complex form.png

1.2.3. CCD Camera Type Beam Profiler

This system measures the light intensity of the whole beam at once, using two-dimensional optical sensors. Because of this, it is more efficient than scanning type beam profiler.
By analyzing the data it is possible to measure beam diameter, beam profile and M2[1].

For light detection, CCD (charged coupled device), which is a semiconductor device with optical detectors arranged two-dimensionally, is used. When light is irradiated to the CCD, the intensity distribution is recorded by each optical detector. The obtained information is fed in to a computer, and reconstructed as a two-dimensional or three-dimensional intensity distribution image, using a software (Fig. 2).

Spatial resolution is determined by the size of the pixels of the CCD. The size of a general pixel is approximately 10 μm, the diameter of a measurable beam is between a few dozen μm and 100 μm. Measurement time can be speeded up by increasing the speed of discharge and charge of electrons that is stored in the CCD. However in actual monitoring, it is limited to the monitors frame rate (30 fps).

Wavelength that a normal CCD can detect is about 1.1 μm. Because of this, it is not possible to directly detect the beam profile of laser diode radiation used for optical communication that uses 1.3 μm and 1.5 μm. For wavelengths outside the band an image converter that converts infrared light to visible light is used.

Fig. 2 Fixed type beam profiler


Fig. 2 Fixed type beam profiler

1.2.4 Pinhole Type Beam Profiler

It can get the intensity distribution of the entire beam by scanning the pinhole two-dimensionally along the plane perpendicular to the optical axis of the laser beam while measuring the transmitted laser beam intensity (Fig. 3). Making the diameter of the pinhole smaller can increase the spatial resolution. Normally, a pinhole the one hundredth of the beam diameter’s size is used. Because it is possible to measure the intensity distribution of any shape, it is possible to measure a complex beam pattern. It is used to measure the continuous wave with no time variation.

Fig.3 Pinhole-scanning type beam profiler


Fig.3 Pinhole-scanning type beam profiler

1.2.5 Slit Type Beam Profiler

The same as pinhole type, by scanning the rectangular slit two-dimensionally along the plane perpendicular to the optical axis of the laser beam, the spatial intensity distribution can be measured(Fig. 4). One-dimensional intensity distribution along the scan direction can be obtained. To get a multidimensional intensity distribution, it is necessary to scan from several directions. It is suitable for measuring a beam with an axisymmetric intensity distribution. Narrowing the slit width increases the spatial resolution. It has a high resolution, and can measure a beam diameter down to about 20 μm.

Fig. 4 Slit-scanning type beam profiler


Fig. 4 Slit-scanning type beam profiler

1.2.6 Knife-edge Type Beam Profiler

This method uses a blade as an obstacle.
Place the knife at the plane perpendicular to the optical axis of the laser beam, and measure the intensity of the light that passes through (Fig. 5). It measures the intensity diameter distribution by moving the knife along the plane. Unlike the slit type beam profiler, by moving the knife, it changes the light intensity (Fig. 5(b)). At this time, between the one-dimensional spatial intensity distribution i(x) and the measured light intensity i ‘ (x), the following relationship can be established.

2

Therefor, the spatial intensity distribution can be obtained by simply dividing the measured light intensity by the knife’s axial displacement. The spatial resolution is better than slit type beam profiler, it can measure a beam diameter down to about 10 μm.

Fig. 5 (a) Knife edge type beam profiler


Fig. 5 (a) Knife edge type beam profiler (b) Relation between measured intensity and intensity distribution

1.2.7. Measuring N.F.P. and F.F.P.

In order to know the characteristics of the beam of an optical device such as, laser diodes or optic fibers, it is necessary to measure the following two profiles. The beam profile near the exit end (N.F.P.: near field pattern), and the beam profile far away from the exit end (F.F.P.: far field pattern). Here we will explain how to measure them with a fixed type beam profiler (CCD type).

For the spatial intensity distribution of a micro level (N.F.P.), magnifying optical system such as a microscope (Fig. 6) is used. The exit end is magnified with an objective lens and then focused on the CCD by a relay lens. Since it is a very small beam, accurate focusing is required. This can be easily achieved by, splitting the beam in two using a beam splitter, and feeding one of them in to the monitoring CCD, thus setting the focus position while observing with a wider field of view.

By measuring F.F.P., diffusion angle of laser diode radiation and N.A. of optic fibers can be measured.
To measure F.F.P., an optical system that uses a f-θ lens, which converts the incident angle to the focal position is used (Fig. 7).

Fig. 6 Optical


Fig. 6 Optical system for measuring N.F.P.


Fig.7 Optical


Fig. 7 Optical system for measuring F.F.P.

1.2.8. What is M2 Beam Quality Measurer?

A M2 beam quality measuring instrument is an instrument that measures laser’s beam quality. Even with a lasers resonator that has the same performance, characteristics of the focused laser beam varies depending on the injection output beam’s characteristics condensing characteristics change.
This is an important parameter, in a field that constant quality is required, such as laser processing. As a measurement of beam quality, the focusing characteristics of a beam, is defined as M2, K value and B.P.P. (beam parameter product).

When condensing focusing laser light with lends, the theoretical minimum spot size is determined by the diffraction limit.
However, if the beams intensity profile is disarranged, the beam cannot be focused the beam to the diffraction limit. M2 is an index to show how many times bigger the beam diameter is to the diffraction limit. If M2 is 1, that beam will have a theoretically minimum focus point. K value is the reciprocal number of M2. B.P.P also has the same meaning as M2, and is shown in the product of the beam divergence angle and the beam waist radius. B.P.P. is mostly used to represent the beam quality of a semiconductor laser diode.

1.2.9. Definition of M2

Even with laser beams that have a strong directivity, and seem to be propagating in a straight line, the beam diameter spreads with propagation. The situation near the beam waist of a propagating beam is shown in Fig. 8.
Near the beam waist, the beam radius in the x-axis and y-axis directions wx,y (z) can be given by the following equation[1].

3

w0x,0y, z0x,0y, and θ0x,0y shows the beam waist radius at the x-and y-axis directions, the position of the beam waist, and the divergence angle of the beam, respectively. The Mx、y2 here is used as a parameter to determine the beam quality, and has the following properties.

  • M2 is always above 1.
  • žWhen M2≡1, the beam is a single-mode Gaussian beam.
  • M2 shows how many times bigger the beam diameter is to the diffraction limit.

M2 is defined using laser beam parameters as the following.

4

λ indicates the wavelength of the laser light.

8


Fig. 8 The state of the vicinity of the beam waist of a Gaussian beam that is centrally symmetric.

1.2.10. Measuring Method of M2

As shown in Eq. (4), M2 can be evaluated by measuring the beam waist radius w0 and the divergence angle of the beam θ0. These parameters can be obtained by, focusing the beam and measure measuring beam diameters of several points along the optical axis (Fig. 9). To reduce the error, measuring at many points as possible, especially around the beam waist should be performed. This increases the accuracy of determining the beam waist.
M2 of major laser beams are summarized in Table 2.

Fig 9


Fig.9 Schematics of measuring M2.

Table 2 Quality of major laser beams

Light source M2
He-Ne laser < 1.1
Ion laser 1.1 ~ 1.3
Semiconductor laser
(Collimated light,TEM00)
1.1 ~ 1.7
High-power multimode laser 3 ~ 4
Camera options
A camera is required to use LaseView (Beam Profiler with M2 Platform Software) as a beam profiler.
We also offer the LaseView camera set series, which includes a CCD camera set from the beginning.
* A camera with a trigger is suitable for measuring pulsed light.
* Cameras without cover glass are suitable for measuring CW lasers and nanosecond lasers.
* Although the CCD camera is sensitive up to a wavelength of 1320 nm, an error occurs in the beam profile measurement. In order to accurately measure the long wavelength band above 1100 nm, it is recommended to use an infrared camera.

CCD cameras

Introducing CCD cameras that have been confirmed to work with LaseView.
Among them, the inexpensive Imaging Source USB 2.0 CCD monochrome camera “DMK 21AU04” is recommended.

Imaging Source Inc. USB 2.0 CCD monochrome camera

Format Resolution[pixel] Frame rate Sensor size Trigger cover glass Indicative Price
(excluding tax)
DMK 21AU04 640×480 60 fps 1/4“ $570
DMK 21BU04 640×480 60 fps 1/4“ $720
DMK 31AU03 1024×768 30 fps 1/3“ $1,030
DMK 31BU03 1024×768 30 fps 1/3“ $1,150
DMK 41AU02 1280×960 15 fps 1/2“ $1,100
DMK 41BU02 1280×960 15 fps 1/2“ $1,150
DMK 51AU02 1600×1200 12 fps 1/1.8“ $1,520
DMK 51BU02 1600×1200 12 fps 1/1.8“ $1,640
DMK 51BU02.WG 1600×1200 12 fps 1/1.8“ $2,280
USB2.0 cable 2m $1,000

Imaging Source Inc. USB 3.0 CCD monochrome camera

Format Resolution [pixel] Frame rate Sensor size Trigger Cover glass Indicative Price
(excluding tax)
DMK 23U618 640×480 120 fps 1/4“ $590
DMK 23U445 1280×960 30 fps 1/3“ $690
DMK 23U274 1600×1200 20 fps 1/1.8“ $1,140
USB3.0 cable 2m $3,000
  • 1. The actual display speed may be reduced due to performances and state of the PC
  • 2. with BNC connector
  • 3. with 12-pin connector
  • We cannot warranty the operation of above cameras on your specific devices
  • If a camera doesn’t work properly, it may be due to your PC or cable
  • We recommend using a USB cable (sold separately)
  • iDS and Basler cameras too have been operated with LaseView

CMOS Camera

CMOS cameras may be cheaper than CCD cameras.
Moreover, though CMOS has lower detection range, it is better than CCD on several points including response speed.

USB 3.0 CMOS Monochrome camera by IDS Imaging Development Systems GmbH

Format Resolution [pixel] Frame rate *1 Sensor size Indicative Price
(excluding tax)
UI-3370CP-M-GL 2048 x 2048 80 fps 1“

USB 2.0 CMOS Monochrome camera by Thorlabs, Inc.

Format Resolution [pixel] Frame rate *1 Sensor size Indicative Price
(excluding tax)
DCC1545M 1280 x 1024 25 fps 1/2“ $460
  • 1. The actual display speed may be reduced due to performances and state of the PC
  • Thorlabs cameras require iDS OEM drivers to operate; if you have installed Thorlabs drivers, uninstall them and then install iDS drivers instead (request them from iDS directly).
  • If a camera doesn’t work properly, it may be due to your PC or cable

USB 2.0 camera by FLIR Systems

Format Resolution [pixel] Frame rate *1 Sensor size Indicative Price
(excluding tax)
CMLN-13S2M-CS 1296 x 964 18 FPS Sony ICX445 CCD, 1/3″, 3.75 µm Please
contact us.
FMVU-03MTM-CS 752 x 480 60 FPS Aptina MT9V022 CMOS, 1/3″, 6.0 µm

USB 3.0 cameraby FLIR Systems

Format Resolution [pixel] Frame rate *1 Sensor size Indicative Price
(excluding tax)
BFLY-U3-03S2M-CS 648 x 488 84 FPS Sony ICX424 CCD, 1/3″, 7.4 µm Please
contact us.
BFLY-U3-05S2M-CS 808 x 608 50 FPS Sony ICX693 CCD, 1/3″, 6.0 µm
BFLY-U3-13S2M-CS 1288 x 964 30 FPS Sony ICX445 CCD, 1/3″, 3.75 µm
BFLY-U3-20S4M-CS 1624 x 1224 15 FPS Sony ICX274 CCD, 1/1.8″, 4.4 µm
BFLY-U3-23S6M-C 1920 x 1200 41 FPS Sony IMX249 CMOS, 1/1.2″, 5.86 µm
BFLY-U3-50H5M-C 2448 x 2048 7.5 FPS Sharp RJ32S4AA0DT CCD, 2/3″, 3.45 µm
Format Resolution [pixel] Frame rate *1 Sensor size Indicative Price
(excluding tax)
CM3-U3-13S2M-CS 1288 x 964 30 FPS Sony ICX445 CCD, 1/3″, 3.75 µm Please
contact us.
CM3-U3-13Y3M-CS 1280 x 1024 149 FPS ON Semi PYTHON 1300 CMOS, 1/2″, 4.8 μm
CM3-U3-28S4M-CS 1928 x 1448 13 FPS Sony ICX818 CCD, 1/1.8″, 3.69 µm
CM3-U3-31S4M-CS 2048 x 1536 55 FPS Sony IMX265 CMOS, 1/1.8″, 3.45 µm
CM3-U3-50S5M-CS 2448 x 2048 35 FPS Sony IMX264 CMOS, 2/3″, 3.45 µm
Format Resolution [pixel] Frame rate *1 Sensor size Indicative Price
(excluding tax)
FL3-U3-13E4M-C 1280 x 1024 60 FPS e2v EV76C560 CMOS, 1/1.8″, 5.3 µm Please
contact us.
FL3-U3-13Y3M-C 1280 x 1024 150 FPS ON Semi VITA 1300 CMOS, 1/2″, 4.8 μm
FL3-U3-20E4M-C 1600 x 1200 59 FPS e2v EV76C5706F CMOS, 1/1.8″, 4.5 µm
Format Resolution [pixel] Frame rate *1 Sensor size Indicative Price
(excluding tax)
GS3-U3-14S5M-C 1384 x 1036 30 FPS Sony ICX285 CCD, 2/3″, 6.45 µm Please
contact us.
GS3-U3-15S5M-C 1384 x 1032 45 FPS Sony ICX825 CCD, 2/3″, 6.45 µm
GS3-U3-23S6M-C 1920 x 1200 163 FPS Sony IMX174 CMOS, 1/1.2″, 5.86 µm
GS3-U3-28S4M-C 1928 x 1448 26 FPS Sony ICX687 CCD, 1/1.8″, 3.69 µm
GS3-U3-28S5M-C 1920 x 1440 26 FPS Sony ICX674 CCD, 2/3″, 4.54 µm
GS3-U3-32S4M-C 2048 x 1536 121 FPS Sony IMX252 CMOS, 1/1.8″, 3.45 µm
GS3-U3-41C6M-C 2048 x 2048 90 FPS CMOSIS CMV4000-3E5 CMOS, 1″, 5.5 µm
GS3-U3-41C6NIR-C 2048 x 2048 90 FPS CMOSIS CMV4000-3E12 CMOS, 1″, 5.5 µm
GS3-U3-41S4M-C 2016 x 2016 18 FPS Sony ICX808 CCD, 1/1.8″, 3.1 µm
GS3-U3-50S5M-C 2448 x 2048 15 FPS Sony ICX625 CCD, 2/3″, 3.45 µm
GS3-U3-51S5M-C 2448 x 2048 75 FPS Sony IMX250 CMOS, 2/3″, 3.45 µm
GS3-U3-60QS6M-C 2736 x 2192 25 FPS Sony ICX694 CCD, 1″, 4.54 µm
GS3-U3-60S6M-C 2736 x 2192 13 FPS Sony ICX694 CCD, 1″, 4.54 µm
GS3-U3-89S6M-C 4096 x 2160 43 FPS Sony IMX255 CMOS, 1″, 3.45 µm
GS3-U3-91S6M-C 3376 x 2704 9 FPS Sony ICX814 CCD, 1″, 3.69 µm
GS3-U3-120S6M-C 4240 x 2824 7 FPS Sony ICX834 CCD, 1″, 3.1 µm
GS3-U3-123S6M-C 4096 x 3000 30 FPS Sony IMX253 CMOS, 1.1″, 3.45 µm

Infrared camera and driver set

Infrared camera will be needed for laser with wavelength over 1100 nm in order to maintain a high accuracy.
For the following infrared cameras an extension driver for LaseView is needed. For the extension driver only, price is $1,000 (excluding tax).

ARTCAM-008TNIR by ARTRAY Inc.

Interface: USB 2.0
Sensor:InGaAs, 9.6(H)x7.68(V)mm
Wavelength: 900-1700 nm
Frame rate: 90 fps

Other options

How to choose options

Laser specifications Reference value Recommended options
Power < 100 mW 1.ND filter set insertion recommended
< 1 W (For vertically polarized light)
< 10 W (For horizontally polarized light)
2.Attenuating optics set with beam splitter recommended
Beam diameter > 30 um
< 30 um 3.Micro beam diameter measurement optical system set recommended

1.ND filter set and mount

In order to measure a high-intensity laser beam, an ND filter set that can be dimmed and its mount are required.

ND filter set

Fig: ND filter set


mount

Fig: ND filter diagonal mount specification

  • Absorption ND filter
  • OD=0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0
  • 1 inch
  • With ND filter diagonal mount

Price:$760(without Tax)
Lead time: Around 1-1.5 month
※ If the power of the laser beam is increased by more than 100 mW, a thermal lens effect will be generated by the absorption ND filter, so a beam splitter that can further reduce the light is required.

2.Attenuating optics set with beam splitter

Attenuating optics set with beam splitter

Fig: Attenuating optics set with beam splitter

Model number:OAS-CA50
Price:$1480(without Tax)
Lead time: Around 2 month
  • LaseView camera set series LaseView-CA50-NCG compatible
  • Wavelength range:650-1050 nm
  • Power: < 1 W(For vertically polarized light) < 10 W(For horizontally polarized light)
  • ND filter included:OD=2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0
* Can be attached directly to the camera.
* The beam splitter attenuation varies depending on the polarization direction (P-polarized light 0.9%, S-polarized light 9%).
* Although the ND filter has an AR coating, interference fringes may occur if the coherence of the laser beam is high.
* An appropriate attenuation rate is not guaranteed under the specified incident light conditions. Add or replace an ND filter with an appropriate attenuation factor according to the conditions.
* There are the following restrictions on beam polarization.
・ Horizontal or vertical linear polarization
・ Uniform polarization characteristics throughout the beam
・ If these conditions are not met, the correct intensity distribution may not be measured due to the polarization dependence of the beam splitter.
* Posts for height adjustment and fixing are not included.

3.Microbeam measurement optical system set

3To measure a beam with a size of 0 μm or less, a microbeam measurement optical system set that can measure microbeams is required. “High magnification, high NA, extremely low aberration” is achieved as a micro beam measurement optical system set.

External view

Fig: External view of microbeam measurement optical system

  • Magnification: Approximately 30 times (typical value 30.8 times @ 1064 nm, 31.5 times @ 532 nm)
  • NA:0.4
  • Operating wavelength range: 400 – 1100 nm (recommended 600 – 1100 nm)
  • Optical resolution: < 2 μm
  • Working distance: approx. 1.7 mm (typical values 1.7 mm @ 1064 nm, 1.6 mm @ 532 nm)
  • Length: 176 mm
  • Connectable to CCD camera

Price: $810(without Tax)(Camera not included)
Lead time: Around 2 month

4.Microbeam measurement optical system set + dedicated holder + 3-axis stage

To measure a beam with a size of several micrometers, a three-axis (x, y, z) stage that can be adjusted at the micrometer level is required.

Microbeam measurement optical system set

Fig: Microbeam measurement optical system set + dedicated holder + 3-axis stage

  • Micro operation position: Side
  • Movement guide: Ball guide
  • Travel distance / 1 rotation: 0.5mm
  • Micrometer minimum reading: 0.01mm
  • Travel distance [mm]: XY axis ± 6.5, Z axis ± 5
  • Can be mounted on M6 tapped base

Price: $2010(without Tax)(Camera not included)
Lead time: Around 2 month

Glossary

What is a cover glass

A protective cover glass is attached on top of the CCD sensor.
Since CW laser and nanosecond laser have a long coherence length, the interference of the reflection of the CCD light-receiving surface and the reflection of the cover glass may cause interference fringes.
This is noticeable with parallel beams, but interference fringes are less likely to appear with focused beams such as when measuring far-field images.
On the other hand, for picosecond lasers and femtosecond lasers, both cameras with and without a cover glass can be recommended.
As a guide, interference will not occur if the coherence length is shorter than the distance between the CCD element and the cover glass (about 1 to 2 mm).
For example, in the case of a pulse with a Fourier transform limit of 1 ps or less, interference fringes do not occur first.
infuluence_of_coverglass_s

Fig: Beam profile collapses with or without cover glass

M2 indicates the focusing characteristics of the laser beam, and M2 = 1 is the ideal state.
When condensing a laser beam with a lens and using it for processing etc., even with a laser with the same performance (for example, 1 W, 1 mJ), the condensing characteristic changes depending on the quality of the emitted beam, and as a result, the processing characteristic changes. I will.
The beam quality must also be measured to anticipate processing characteristics.

What is CCD

A CCD (Charged Coupled Device) is a charge-coupled device that has a structure in which a light-receiving unit and a transfer unit composed of semiconductors are arranged.
When light is applied to the light receiving part, it generates charge and has a function to transfer the generated charge.
By determining which position on the CCD the semiconductor has received light, you can obtain an image (here, a laser) of the subject. Resolution is a measure of the fineness and smoothness of an image. The higher this value, the more natural the image quality will be.
The resolution shown in the above table means the number of light receiving parts in the CCD. A high resolution means that there are many photo detectors. For example, a resolution of 1628 x 1236 indicates that about 2 million photo detectors are arranged.

resolution

Fig: Difference in resolution
Quote: Wikipedia

What is frame rate

A movie is created by stitching together still images.
The frame rate (fps) indicates how many still images are stitched together per second.
The higher the frame rate, the smoother the motion.
Frame rates include 60 fps, 50 fps, 30 fps, 25 fps, 24 fps, etc. 60 fps indicates that 60 frames (60 frames) are recorded per second.

fps

Fig: Difference in smoothness depending on frame rate
Quote: Nikon

(CCD) What is sensor size

Indicates the size of the CCD sensor.
The larger the CCD, the larger the size of one light receiving element, so more light can be captured.
In other words, for the same resolution (number of pixels), the larger the sensor size, the better the image quality.

What is the number of bits

The number of bits means how fine the gradation from black to white is divided.
Since 8 bits means 2 to the 8th power, it is divided into 256 steps, and 12 bits is divided into 4096 steps. The larger the number of bits, the clearer the gradation.

What is a trigger

A trigger is a function that starts shooting using an input signal as a switch.
By applying voltage to the CCD camera as a trigger at the same time as laser irradiation, observation can be performed in synchronization with laser irradiation.
In the case of a pulse wave, it is difficult to manually turn on / off the image according to the pulse, so observation is generally performed using a trigger.

FAQ
Which cameras are supported?

It supports monochrome cameras from The Imaging Source, iDS, and Basler, ArtRay 424KY, 445KY, and 150P5 series.
Please contact us as other cameras may be available.
Note that some Thorlabs cameras are iDS camera OEMs, so you may be able to use them by installing the iDS driver after removing the Thorlabs driver.

Which camera should I use?

It depends on the wavelength, whether it is parallel light or condensed light, CW or Pulse, and in the case of Pulse, the pulse width.
If you are having trouble with the camera you are using, please see the LaseView Camera Set Series.

Do you need laser attenuation?

The standard of the intensity and energy of the laser incident on the camera is as follows.
・ Strength 1-10 uW / cm2 or less
・ Pulse energy: 10 nJ or less
In the case of lasers with higher intensity and energy, attenuation using ND filters is necessary.
In addition, if it is over 100 mW, the ND filter generates a thermal lens effect, so attenuation that combines with a beam splitter is also necessary.
If you are looking for a beam profiler that can be measured simply by entering a laser without using an attenuating optical system, use the large-diameter, high-power beam profiler (LaseView-LHB).

Can it be used as a power meter?

Although there is a function to display the relative total power that integrates the whole beam, absolute power is not calibrated, and absolute power can not be measured because the sensitivity and dark current of the CCD depend on temperature. not.
It is possible to remove the temperature dependence by using a cooling CCD (with temperature control).
However, since the CCD dynamic range is about three digits, the upper limit of the dynamic range is about 1000 counts even in power measurement.

Is a CMOS camera inferior to a CCD camera?

Compared with CCD sensor, CMOS sensor
・ Fixed pattern noise is large
・ Inferior sensitivity uniformity and linearity
In the past, this was solved by the latest CMOS sensor, and characteristics comparable to those of a CCD sensor can be obtained.
On the other hand, the CMOS sensor is superior to the CCD sensor.
・ High readout speed (frame rate)
・ Low power consumption
・ Small board area
・ Inexpensive
And so on.
If high accuracy measurement is required, a CCD camera is recommended, but a CMOS camera may be sufficient. Please contact us if you have any trouble with CMOS camera and CCD camera.

Is there a difference between color and monochrome?

In general, it is not recommended to use a color camera for quantitative beam measurements.
Using a color sensor has the following disadvantages.
1. Low sensitivity. Since it has an IR cut filter, it may be 1/100 or less, especially in the infrared region.
2. Since the amount of information is reduced, measurement accuracy may be reduced if the beam diameter is small.
3. LaseView creates a monochrome image from the average values of the RGB three-color signals, and displays and analyzes the image, reducing the dynamic range.
4. Saturation of the signal is difficult to understand and the linearity may be significantly reduced.

Can I update after purchasing LaseView?

You can use the update free of charge for one year after purchase.

Can you add the function of ~?

Customization is possible upon request. Please contact us for available contents and costs.

Is there any difference from LaseView 3 (earlier version)?

The following functions have been added.
① M2 analysis function
② Automatic peak tracking function based on centroid calculation
③ Improvement of usability
④ Increase in compatible cameras (Imaging Source, iDS, Basler, Art Ray)
⑤ Improved stability
⑥ Improvement of processing speed by parallel operation
⑦ Japanese

Can I start two screens at the same time?

There is no restriction as LaseView. However, due to hardware limitations, the two cameras may not work in conflict.
If you have a PC with multiple USB controllers, conflicts will be less likely to occur.

Can you draw a background?

The background can be drawn with the dark correction function.

Can I use all camera pixels?

It depends on the camera specifications. The software side supports any resolution.

Can I record past beam edges to see beam misalignment?

When “Fix position” is set to ON in line profile analysis or peak integration analysis, the position of the crosshair is maintained even if the software is closed.

Can you measure the center of gravity of the laser?

The center of gravity analysis function will be added in the next version.

Can you measure the integral value of power?

The integrated value can be measured with the peak integration function.

Is it possible to move the plot position by 1 pixel?

It is possible by mouse operation.

Can you specify coordinates?

Since the coordinates of the specified position are displayed by operating the mouse, you can adjust to the desired coordinates while viewing the coordinates.

Is it possible to export analysis results?

You can export from the menu File → Options → Save Graph Data.

Can I export images?

In addition to saving screenshots, you can also export analysis results.

Can it be used for fluorescence observation?

Can be used for fluorescence observation of fluorescent materials. However, in the case of materials with extremely weak fluorescence, the camera sensitivity may be insufficient and measurement may not be possible.

Is the gamma value corrected?

Some cameras can adjust the gamma value, but basically the default gamma value is 1.0, ensuring linearity.
In addition, our recommended camera amplifies the CCD stored electrons with a linear amplifier, so that good linearity can be obtained without gamma correction.
Please contact us if you need more precise linearity correction.

What is the beam diameter measurement accuracy? What is the range of beam diameters for which accuracy is guaranteed?

LaseView can perform beam diameter analysis based on Gaussian fitting.
The typical standard error of Gauss fitting is less than 1% when measured under low noise and appropriate conditions.
However, the error varies greatly depending on the measurement conditions (noise level, beam diameter, beam shape).
For a Gaussian profile, high accuracy can be obtained if the full width at half maximum of the beam is approximately 30 times the pixel size of the sensor or less than approximately one quarter of the sensor’s photosensitive area. .

What are the disadvantages of increasing the measurement area for LaseView LHB?

The optical resolution deteriorates in proportion to the light receiving surface size as shown below.
Light receiving surface width: Optical resolution standard
10 ~ 20mm approx. 25μm
20-40mm, about 50μm
40-80mm approx. 100μm (standard)
80 mm or more, approx. 200 μm

Please tell me how to use D4σ

The threshold is 0 to 100%, and the integration range (brightness value range) changes. 0% indicates the background and 100% indicates the top of the beam. Usually there is no problem with the threshold OFF.

How is the beam diameter of D4σ different from the apparent beam diameter?

Because the beam diameter is 4 times the D4σ standard deviation, the beam diameter is larger than it appears when the beam has many tail components.

Is baseline subtraction (background subtraction) necessary for D4σ measurement?

Normally, it is not necessary to use the background subtraction function for D4σ measurement. When calculating D4σ, the software automatically calculates and subtracts the background level.
If the CCD camera does not receive any light and the background level is not flat, the background subtraction function is effective to improve accuracy. When background subtraction is turned on and clicking “ Set ” with no light entering the CCD camera, the image at that time is stored internally as the background level, and background subtraction processing is performed from the next image .
If the noise is loud, you can get better results by enabling “Averaging” when clicking “Set”.

Does D4σ have a diameter of ± 2σ around the center of gravity?

Calculate the standard deviation σ in the horizontal and vertical directions with the center of gravity as the average value, and 4σ is the beam diameter.

When measuring with D4σ, the range automatically changes depending on the beam size, but what kind of calculation does it change?

The integration range is set automatically from the beam diameter. Specifically, the centroid and standard deviation σ of pixels with a luminance of 50% or more of the peak luminance are calculated, and the value obtained by multiplying σ by an appropriate coefficient is the width. When “Specify range” is turned ON, the integration range can be set manually.
If the integration range is too small, the beam diameter will be evaluated as small, and if it is too large, the background error will increase, so it is important to set an appropriate integration range.
Also, the accuracy is low for images with a low S / N ratio.
D4σ has the advantage of being able to define the beam width for beams of any intensity distribution, but because integration is performed, the measurement error increases depending on the measurement conditions.

What is the role of the switch on the profiler side?

ON / OFF switch for screen swing motor to reduce speckle.
Speckle noise can be reduced by turning on the motor and turning on the software “Averaging”.
If the motor is not used, it is not necessary to connect an AC adapter.

Is the sound normal when the switch on the profiler side wall is tilted upwards?

The sound is normal. Internal motor gear sound.

Steps to turn off the profiler. There are buttons such as “Stop” and “Disconnect” on the software toolbar.

There is no particular procedure. Whatever you do, the program automatically performs the appropriate processing.
For example, you can close the app while it is displayed or remove the USB.

I want to measure the beam profile and divergence angle.
In that case, is the optimal analysis mode “Line Profile” or “Integral Profile” when the profile is rampant?

If the profile is rampant, the “averaging” function is suitable.
You can also analyze the beam divergence angle of images saved by selecting [Folder] → [Batch Analysis].

In LasaView, if you save with “Save Image”-“* .tif”, can you analyze FWHM etc. if you open the image later, and can you also export to csv?

That’s right.

When saving csv in “Save numerical data of graph”,
Hori.Y: Is it a horizontal profile of the crosshair?
Ver.Y: Is it a profile in the vertical direction of the crosshairs?

That’s right.

In “Save numerical data of graph”,
・ Is there any way to save the profile of any section?
・ Is there a way to save a 3D (entire) profile?

To save a profile of any section, select “Line Profile” in the analysis,
If you move the crosshairs to any position with the mouse, you can save the cross section on the crosshairs.
Numerical data of all pixels can be saved from [File] → [Export image] → [CSV text].

Is it okay to leave the pixel size at the “default” setting?

In LaseView-LHB, the pixel size is set to 40 x 40μm (62.5 x 62.5μm for LHB-100) in the “default” state.
The pixel size is calibrated, so please use it normally.
If the pixel size display at the bottom of the window is displayed as (Not set), the LHB driver may not be installed correctly.

Select “Line Profile” and save it to csv saved in “Save Numerical Data of Graph”.
There were Fit Hori. X / Y and Fit Vert. X / Y columns.
What does this mean?
Will other columns be added in other modes?

When Gaussian fit is selected in the analysis, a red graph is displayed on the screen, but Fit Hori. X / Y etc. is the numerical data of the red line.

LaseView Purchasers

  • Osaka University
  • Kyushu University
  • Kyoto University
  • Kyoto Institute of Technology
  • Shinshu University
  • Nagoya University
  • The University of Electro-Communications
  • The University of Tokyo
  • Tokyo Institute of Technology
  • Sophia University
  • Optoelectronics and Industrial Science Graduate University
  • Hiroshima University
  • Fukui University
  • Yamagata University
  • University of the Ryukyus
  • RIKEN
  • Laser Technology Research Institute
  • National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology
  • Japan Atomic Energy Agency
  • National Institute of Information and Communications Technology
  • Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency
  • Quantum Science and Technology Research and Development Organization
  • National Observatory (NAOJ)
  • Japan Coast Guard Headquarters
  • Avision(Suzhou)CO.,LTD. Mechanical Engineering.Sect.2
  • Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR, Germany)
  • Institute of Physics AS CR, v.v.i. (Czech Republic)
  • University of Southampton(UK)
  • Nikko Precision Industry Co., Ltd. (Taiwan)
  • Jet Propulsion Laboratory, NASA
  • Continuum Inc.
  • LG Electronics
  • Wontech
  • Other domestic and foreign private companies

Users feedback

  • “As cameras are cheap, we are not worrying breaking them”
  • “We can use cameras as expandable goods”
  • “Easy to prepare”
  • “The Software is easy to use and intuitive”
  • “Low-cost !”
  • “It is great to have M2 beam quality measurement function already included”

LaseView’s price

Product name and number Price Delivery time Catalog Manual
Beam profiler withM2 platform software – LaseView 6 US$3,000 Within the day (download) PDF PDF
LaseView 6  “7 days trial” US$ 0 Within the day (download) PDF PDF

* Latest version is 6.0.2.0* Purchasers of LaseView 5 version, please contact us for a free upgrade !